Recent Research Publications and Funding

  •  | December 19, 2014 5:00AM

    Purpose of the Study: Assisted living (AL) residents with dementia require assistance with activities of daily living, encounter limited opportunities to engage in physical activity, and often exhibit challenging behavioral symptoms. The Function Focused Care Intervention for the Cognitively Impaired (FFC-CI) teaches and motivates direct care workers (DCWs) to engage residents with dementia in activities that optimize function and activity while minimizing behavioral symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of FFC-CI on function, physical activity, behavior, and falls.

    Design and Methods: A cluster-randomized trial included 96 residents with dementia and 76 DCWs from 4 ALs. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate outcomes at 3 and 6 months.

    Results: There were no treatment by time differences with regard to resident behavior, mood, counts of physical activity based on actigraphy, falls, and function. There were significant increases in physical activity based on kilocalories burned (p = .001), time spent in physical activity based on survey results (p = .001), and time spent in repetitive behaviors, such as wandering (p = .01) among the control group over time. There were no treatment by time differences with regard to DCW beliefs, knowledge, or performance of FFC, except for less decline in job satisfaction among the treatment group (p = .002). Treatment fidelity with regard to delivery and receipt were poor due to high staff attrition in the treatment group (46% vs. 16%) and limited site support.

    Implications: The findings from this study can be used to adapt future FFC intervention studies to improve treatment fidelity and optimize intervention efficacy.

  •  | December 17, 2014 5:00AM

    Purpose: In recent years, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have increased steadily in the USA, though racial and ethnic disparities persist. In a community-based randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effect of patient navigation on increasing CRC screening adherence among older African Americans.

    Methods: Participants in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration were randomized to either the control group, receiving only printed educational materials (PEM), or the intervention arm where they were assigned a patient navigator in addition to PEM. Navigators assisted participants with identifying and overcoming screening barriers. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of patient navigation on CRC screening adherence. Up-to-date with screening was defined as self-reported receipt of colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy in the previous 10 years or fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) in the year prior to the exit interview.

    Results: Compared with controls, the intervention group was more likely to report being up-to-date with CRC screening at the exit interview (OR 1.55, 95 % CI 1.07–2.23), after adjusting for select demographics. When examining the screening modalities separately, the patient navigator increased screening for colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.07–2.19), but not FOBT screening. Analyses of moderation revealed stronger effects of navigation among participants 65–69 years and those with an adequate health literacy level.

    Conclusions: In a population of older African Americans adults, patient navigation was effective in increasing the likelihood of CRC screening. However, more intensive navigation may be necessary for adults over 70 years and individuals with low literacy levels.

  •  | December 3, 2014 5:00AM

    Background: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program.

    Methods: A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA).

    Results: During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors.

    Conclusions: These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal—preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession.

  •  | December 3, 2014 5:00AM

    Background: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program.

    Methods: A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA).

    Results: During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors.

    Conclusions: These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal—preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession.

  •  | December 3, 2014 5:00AM

    Background: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program.

    Methods: A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA).

    Results: During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors.

    Conclusions: These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal—preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession.

  •  | December 3, 2014 5:00AM

    Background: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program.

    Methods: A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA).

    Results: During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors.

    Conclusions: These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal—preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession.

  •  | December 3, 2014 5:00AM

    Background: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program.

    Methods: A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA).

    Results: During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors.

    Conclusions: These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal—preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession.

  •  | December 3, 2014 5:00AM

    Background: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program.

    Methods: A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA).

    Results: During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors.

    Conclusions: These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal—preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession.

  •  | November 27, 2014 5:00AM

    This secondary analysis evaluated the association of operating room scrub staff expertise, based on frequency of working on a specific surgical procedure, with the development of surgical site infections. The odds of developing surgical site infections decreased by 5.7% (odds ratio = 0.943; 95% confidence interval, 0.834-1.067) with increased expertise, although a statistically significant association was not established (P = .354). The relationship between operating room scrub staff expertise and patient outcomes is important to understand.

  •  | October 31, 2014 3:00AM

    PURPOSE: We examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cancer screening among older African American men.

    METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from a sample of 485 community-dwelling African American men who participated in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration Trial. The outcome was receipt of PSA screening within the past year. SES was measured using income and educational attainment. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models were performed to study whether health care access, patient-provider relationship, and cancer fatalism mediated the relationship between SES and PSA screening.

    RESULTS: Higher educational attainment was significantly associated with higher odds of PSA screening in the past year (odds ratio (OR) 2.08 for college graduate compared to less than high school graduate, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-4.24); income was not. Health care access and patient-provider communication did not alter the relationship between education and screening; however, beliefs regarding cancer fatalism partially mediated the observed relationship.

    CONCLUSION: Rates of prostate cancer screening among African American men vary by level of educational attainment; beliefs concerning cancer fatalism help explain this gradient. Understanding the determinants of cancer fatalism is a critical next step in building interventions that seek to ensure equitable access to prostate cancer screening.