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Recent Research Publications and Funding

  •  | September 1, 2002 4:00AM

     When an infant presents in the delivery room with macular and papular skin lesions covering the trunk, extremities, and/or skin folds, the neonatal nurse practitioner covering deliveries must be aware of possible skin lesion differential diagnoses. Among these is congenital cutaneous candidiasis, a rare, usually benign skin infection. If this condition is recognized early, unnecessary testing and treatment of newborns who present with these symptoms might be avoided.

  •  | August 1, 2002 4:00AM

     Purpose/Objectives: To examine the relationship between women’s reported social support and their adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community women’s organizations throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. Sample: 833 mostly low-income women with a mean age of 46.2 years from three racial or ethnic groups (i.e., Latina, Caucasian, and African American) who were not breast cancer survivors. Methods: Social support was measured with a five-item, four-point, Likert scale developed for the study (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.7248). Adherence to screening guidelines was measured by asking frequency of performing breast self-examination (BSE) and frequency of obtaining a clinical breast examination (CBE) and a mammogram. Research assistants and leaders of women’s organizations conducted the survey in work and community settings. Main Research Variables: Social support, performance of BSE, obtaining a CBE and a mammogram, income, education, spoken language, and level of acculturation. Findings: Higher levels of social support were related to higher income and higher education. Lower levels of social support were associated with being Latina, completing the survey in Spanish, and being born abroad. Women who did not adhere to screening guidelines (for BSE or CBE) reported less social support. Conclusions: Social support is associated with adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines. Implications for Nursing: Nurses should assess women’s levels of social support as a factor when evaluating adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  •  | September 1, 2001 4:00AM

     The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint).

  •  | January 1, 2001 6:00AM

     A preterm infant, whose course was complicated by sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis with jejunal perforation, intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage, suffered permanent and total paralysis below the neck from extravasation of parenteral nutrition fluids through a femoral venous catheter. MRI imaging revealed extravasation of fluid into the paraspinus musculature with extension into the spinal canal. This fluid was identified as hyperalimentation and intralipid. Postmortem examination found evidence of necrosis of the spinal cord as well as perforation of the right iliac vein.

  •  | August 1, 2000 4:00AM

     Objectives: To explore how culture may play a part in breast cancer screening, early detection, and efforts to decrease breast mortality. Data Sources: Journal articles published in the past 20 years on cultural aspects of cancer prevention and control. Conclusions: Research seems directed more at discovering cultural differences than at identifying similarities on how culture influences breast cancer screening and early detection. The influences of poverty and lack of educational opportunities account for much of what is termed cultural difference. Implications for Nursing Practice: Improving practice through an informed understanding of culture calls for considerable self-education and a fundamental refinement of care delivery.

  •  | March 1, 2000 6:00AM

     Sleep problems (i.e., insomnia) affect midlife women as they approach and pass through menopause at rates higher than at most other stages of life. The purpose of this article is to critically review what is known about insomnia (perceived poor sleep) and physiologically assessed sleep, as well as sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB), in women according to menopausal status and the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) hormones. Self-report evidence that sleep difficulties are related to the hormonal changes of menopause is mixed. Data from studies in which sleep was physiologically measured reveal that sleep problems appear corequisite with hot flashes and sweats. Results are difficult to compare across studies because of varying methodologies in how sleep quality and patterns were assessed and how age cohorts and menopausal status were defined. The risk of SDB increases with age, although women are less susceptible at any age than men. As with men, snoring, obesity, and high blood pressure are clear risk factors. Some women may be underdiagnosed for SDB, as they have somewhat different symptom manifestations than men. Usually, frank apnea is not as evident. Primary care clinicians should be mindful of the potential for SDB in women who are obese, have high blood pressure, are cognizant of snoring, and report morning headaches and excessive daytime sleepiness. Improved care will result from consistently incorporating sleep insomnia assessments into practice as a basis for referring to sleep centers as necessary or prescribing sleep-enhancing behavioral and pharmacological treatments

  •  | August 1, 1998 4:00AM

    CONTEXT: The majority of prior studies examining intimate partner abuse in the emergency department (ED) setting have been conducted in large, urban tertiary care settings and may not reflect the experiences of women seen at community hospital EDs, which treat the majority of ED patients in the United States.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of intimate partner abuse among female patients presenting for treatment in community hospital EDs and describe their characteristics.

    DESIGN: An anonymous survey conducted from 1995 through 1997 inquiring about physical, sexual, and emotional abuse.

    SETTING: Eleven community EDs in Pennsylvania and California.

    PARTICIPANTS: All women aged 18 years or older who came to the ED during selected shifts.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reported acute trauma from abuse, past-year physical or sexual abuse, and lifetime physical or emotional abuse.

    RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 3455 (74%) of 4641 women seen. The prevalence of reported abuse by an intimate partner was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%-2.7%) for acute trauma from abuse, 14.4% (95% CI, 13.2%-15.6%) for past-year physical or sexual abuse, and 36.9% (95% CI, 35.3%-38.6%) for lifetime emotional or physical abuse. California had significantly higher reported rates of past-year physical or sexual abuse (17% vs 12%, P<.001) and lifetime abuse (44% vs 31%, P<.001) than Pennsylvania. Logistic regression modeling identified 4 risk factors for reported physical, sexual, or acute trauma from abuse within the past year: age, 18 to 39 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-3.0); monthly income less than $1000 (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1); children younger than 18 years living in the home (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.6); and ending a relationship within the past year (OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 5.5-8.9).

    CONCLUSION: If the prevalence of abuse in community hospitals throughout the United States is similar to the range of prevalence estimates found in this study, then heightened awareness of intimate partner abuse is warranted for patients presenting to the ED

  •  | January 1, 1995 6:00AM

     This article seeks to describe the current efforts of public health nurses involved in family violence prevention while on home visits, participating in community groups, working on special projects, and developing innovative policies. Despite a dearth of outcomes research and data regarding public health nursing practice in this area, both strengths and weakness in public health nursing practice are evident. Improvements in nursing education related to family violence, an increase in multidisciplinary collaboration by public health nurses, and improvements in the utilization of public health nurses in the public health infrastructure and in primary prevention efforts would remove many barriers to effective family violence prevention strategies.

  •  | December 31, 1969 8:00PM

    The primary study aims were to conduct a national inventory of radon resistant new construction (RRNC) policies, test the association between geographic risk and policy adoption, and survey local building industry members to learn their perspectives on RRNC policy. Comparison and contrast of existing policies revealed a heterogeneous approach to RRNC. An odds ratio analysis was conducted to test if RRNC adoption was associated with high EPA zone designation. States with more radon risk were five times more likely to have implemented RRNC (χ2 = 2.34, OR = 5.00, 95% CI 1.2 - 19.3, p < .05). Local industry members reported 100% of projects included radon system installation at least occasionally despite the lack of RRNC policy in Montana. Given the heterogeneous nature of RRNC policies, the authors recommend including building industry members’ perspectives as partners in drafting future policy.