Recent Research Publications and Funding

  •  | October 25, 2014 4:00AM

    BACKGROUND: Understanding minority nurses' job satisfaction is a critical first step to inform strategies designed to retain minority nurses and improve institutional climate to ensure sustained diversity. Yet, empirical evidence is limited in this regard, especially comparisons across racial and ethnic groups in a national sample in the U.S.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine minority nurses' job satisfaction across racial and ethnic groups relative to White nurses using a national representative sample.

    METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. The sample includes registered nurses who were primarily employed in nursing in the U.S. Job satisfaction was measured by a single survey item. Racial and ethnic minority status was defined as self-identified membership in a group other than White non-Hispanic, including Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Multiracial. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to compare job satisfaction across racial and ethnic groups while adjusting for individual and job-related characteristics.

    RESULTS: The majority of nurses were satisfied with their job. The nurse group that had the highest proportion of being satisfied with their job was Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (88.8%), followed by White (81.6%), Asian (81%), Hispanic (78.9%), Black (76%), Multiracial (75.7%), and American Indian/Alaska Native (74.3%). Adjusting for individual and job-related characteristics, evidence indicated the potential for lower job satisfaction among Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Multiracial nurses compared to White nurses. Asian nurses reported the highest levels of neutral (versus dissatisfaction) compared to White nurses. There was no evidence indicating a clear difference in job satisfaction between Hispanic, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and White nurses.

    CONCLUSIONS: Moderate differences in job satisfaction were observed across racial and ethnic groups. More research is needed to understand factors underlying these differences, so that nursing and hospital administrators can develop effective strategies to improve job satisfaction and retain minority nurses.

  •  | October 23, 2014 4:00AM

    This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high school adolescents in underserved communities. 

  •  | October 21, 2014 4:00AM

    Although research has shown that mothers significantly influence daughters' willingness to be vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV), cultural factors influencing immigrant Haitian mothers' willingness to have adolescent daughters to be vaccinated are unknown. This is of concern as this population experiences disproportionately higher rates of HPV infection and related cervical cancers. This study identifies cultural beliefs influencing 31 immigrant Haitian mothers' willingness to vaccinate their daughters against HPV using semistructured interviews. Mothers had low levels of HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, and desired more information. Concerns centered on cultural values regarding adolescent sexuality and HIV/AIDS stigmas specific to Haitian communities. If vaccination were recommended by a physician, mothers are more likely to have their daughters vaccinated. HPV vaccination uptake efforts targeting Haitian months should emphasize physician involvement and incorporate culturally relevant health concerns.

  •  | October 18, 2014 4:00AM

    The purpose of the study was to examin parents' knowlege of HPV and predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their sons ages 9 to 13.

  •  | October 16, 2014 4:00AM

    OBJECTIVES: We explored service variation among local health departments (LHDs) nationally to allow systematic characterization of LHDs by patterns in the constellation of services they deliver.

    METHODS: We conducted latent class analysis by using categorical variables derived from LHD service data collected in 2008 for the National Profile of Local Health Departments Survey and before service changes resulting from the national financial crisis.

    RESULTS: A 3-class solution produced the best fit for this data set of 2294 LHDs. The 3 configurations of LHD services depicted an interrelated set of narrow or limited service provision (limited), a comprehensive (core) set of key services provided, and a third class of core and expanded services (core plus), which often included rare services. The classes demonstrated high geographic variability and were weakly associated with expenditure quintile and urban or rural location.

    CONCLUSIONS: This empirically derived view of how LHDs organize their array of services is a unique approach to categorizing LHDs, providing an important tool for research and a gauge to monitor how changes in LHD service patterns occur.

  •  | October 15, 2014 4:00AM

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. 

  •  | October 14, 2014 4:00AM

    Background: Although cancer outcomes have improved in recent decades, substantial disparities by race, ethnicity, income and education persist. Increasingly, patient navigation services are demonstrating success in improving cancer detection, treatment and care and in reducing cancer health disparities. To advance progress in developing patient navigation programs, extensive descriptions of each component of the program must be made available to researchers and health service providers.

    Objective: To describe the components of a patient navigation program designed to improve cancer screening based on informed decision-making on cancer screening and cancer treatment services among predominantly Black older adults in Baltimore City.

    Methods: A community-academic participatory approach was used to develop a patient navigation program in Baltimore, Maryland. The components of the patient navigation system included the development of a community academic (advisory) committee (CAC); recruitment and selection of community health workers (CHWs)/navigators and supervisory staff; initial training and continuing education of the CHWs/navigators; and evaluation of CHWs/navigators. The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Institutional Review Board.

    Conclusions: The incorporation of community-based participatory research (CPBR) principles into each facet of this patient navigation program facilitated the attainment of the intervention’s objectives. This patient navigation program successfully delivered cancer navigation services to 1302 urban Black older adults. Appropriately recruited, selected and trained CHWs monitored by an experienced supervisor and investigators are the key elements in a patient navigation program. This model has the potential to be adapted by research and health service providers.

  •  | September 18, 2014 4:00AM

    Achieving equitable minority representation in genomic biobanking is one of the most difficult challenges faced by researchers today. Capacity building-a framework for research that includes collaborations and on-going engagement-can be used to help researchers, clinicians and communities better understand the process, utility, and clinical application of genomic science.

  •  | September 18, 2014 4:00AM

    CONTEXT: Perceived cognitive impairment (PCI) has been shown to be one of the most common symptoms after breast cancer treatment. However, this symptom does not always correlate with objective cognitive performance and is often highly associated with other patient-reported symptoms.

    OBJECTIVES: Using a sample of breast cancer survivors (BCS), this study examined relationships among the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive (FACT-Cog) scale, a self-report questionnaire that measures PCI; impact on quality of life (QoL); comments from others (other); perceived cognitive ability (PCA); objective cognitive performance on tests of verbal memory, speed of processing, and executive functioning; and other symptoms (fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance).

    METHODS: The BCS who were aged 40 years or older and at least one year post-chemotherapy treatment were enrolled. Participants completed questionnaires and a brief neuropsychological assessment.

    RESULTS: A total of 88 BCS who were on average 56.7 (SD 8.5) years old and 5.3 (SD 4.1) years post-treatment participated; 94% reported clinically significant PCI. The PCI was significantly correlated with some objective measures of immediate and delayed verbal memory and executive function, whereas PCA was associated with all these measures. The PCI and PCA were both significantly associated with depressive symptoms, fatigue, and anxiety, but only PCI was related to poor global sleep quality.

    CONCLUSION: The PCA was highly correlated with objective neuropsychological performance and may be clinically useful in identifying problems with verbal memory and executive functioning in BCS.

  •  | September 17, 2014 4:00AM

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices.