Culturally- Tailored Intervention for Rural African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate a culturally tailored intervention for rural African Americans. Social Cognitive Theory provided the framework for the study. METHODS: Twenty-two participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either Group or Individual diabetes self-management (DSME). Group DSME included story-telling, hands-on activities, and problem-solving exercises. Individual DSME sessions focused on goal-setting and problem-solving strategies. Sessions were offered in an accessible community center over a 10-week period. RESULTS: Outcomes included glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), self-care actions, self-efficacy level, goal attainment, and satisfaction with DSME. Participants in both Group and Individual DSME improved slightly over the 3-month period in self-care activities, A1C level, and goal attainment. Although differences were not statistically significant, trends indicate improved scores on dietary actions, foot care, goal attainment, and empowerment for those experiencing Group DSME. CONCLUSIONS: The culturally tailored approach was well received by all participants. Improvements among those receiving Individual DSME may indicate that brief sessions usinga culturally tailored approach could enhance self-care and glycemic control. Additional testing among more participants over a longer time period is recommended.