Neonatal Health

Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease

Thermoregulation, or control of body temperature, has been studied as a fundamental physiological parameter defining health and disease for centuries (Ring, 2007; Ring, McEvoy, Jung, Zuber, & Machin, 2010). Multiple techniques have been used to assess thermoregulation in infants and adults, including the recent development of infrared thermography.

Exploring the association between pain intensity and facial display in term newborns

BACKGROUND: Facial expression is widely used to judge pain in neonates. However, little is known about the relationship between intensity of the painful stimulus and the nature of the expression in term neonates.
OBJECTIVES: To describe differences in the movement of key facial areas between two groups of term neonates experiencing painful stimuli of different intensities.

Heat loss prevention in the delivery room for preterm infants: a national survey of newborn intensive care units.

 BACKGROUND: Hypothermia incurred during delivery room resuscitation continues to cause morbidity in infants <29 weeks gestation. Three recent trials have shown that wrapping such infants instead of drying prevents heat loss, resulting in higher infant temperatures at Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission.
OBJECTIVE: To describe current NICU practices with respect to wrapping preterm infants to prevent heat loss in the delivery room.
STUDY DESIGN: E-mail survey of neonatologists from national registry using a web-based survey tool.

Heat Loss Prevention for Preterm Infants in the Delivery Room

 OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants are prone to hypothermia immediately following birth. Among other factors, excessive evaporative heat loss and the relatively cool ambient temperature of the delivery room may be important contributors. Most infants <29 weeks gestation had temperatures <36.4°C on admission to our neonatal unit (NICU). Therefore we conducted a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of placing these infants in polyurethane bags in the delivery room to prevent heat loss and reduce the occurrence of hypothermia on admission to the NICU.

Extremely low birth weight preterm infants lack vasomotor response in relationship to cold body temperatures at birthELBW infants lack vasomotor response in cold body

 Study Objective: This study evaluated peripheral vasoconstriction in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants when body temperature decreased during the first 12 h of life.

Thyroid hormone levels in term and preterm neonates

 Screening for thyroid hormone levels in the first week of life is extremely important to identify infants with CH. Worldwide neonatal screening programs have been successful in decreasing childhood mental retardation related to CH by early detection and treatment. To successfully screen for CH, nurses must understand how to draw blood that will yield valid results on the metabolic screening filter paper.

Peripheral Vasoconstriction in Transitional ELBW Infants

 Background: ELBW infants are vulnerable to cold stress during the transition from delivery room to intensive care. Infants produce heat by non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and should exhibit peripheral vasoconstriction when cold, but little empirical evidence confirms that ELBW infants are capable of peripheral vasoconstriction.
Objective: This study evaluated the ability of ELBW infants weighing 400–1000 grams to exhibit peripheral vasoconstriction when body temperatures decreased.

Optimal Body Temperature in Transitional Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Using Heart Rate and Temperature as Indicators

 Objective: To explore body temperature in relationship to heart rate in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants
during their first 12 hours to help identify the ideal set point for incubator control of body temperature.
Design: Within subject, multiple-case design.
Setting: A tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina.
Participants: Ten infants born at fewer than 29 weeks gestation and weighing 400 to 1,000 g.

Thermoregulation and Heat Loss Prevention After Birth and During Neonatal Intensive-Care Unit Stabilization of Extremely Low-Birthweight Infants

Extremely low-birthweight infants have inefficient thermoregulation due to immaturity and may exhibit cold body temperatures after birth and during their first 12 hours of life. Hypothermia in these infants can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Anecdotal notes made during our recent study revealed extremely low-birthweight infants’ temperatures decreased with caregiver procedures such as umbilical line insertion, intubations, obtaining chest x-rays, manipulating intravenous lines, repositioning, suctioning, and taking vital signs during the first 12 hours of life.

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