Race/Ethnicity

Are local health department expenditures related to racial disparities in mortality?

  This study estimated whether 1990-1997 changes in expenditures per capita of local health departments (LHDs) and percentage share of local public revenue allocated to LHDs were associated inversely with 1990-1997 changes in mortality rates for Black and White racial/ethnic groups in the US. Population was 883 local jurisdictions with 1990 and 1997 mortality rates for Black and White racial populations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wonder Compressed Mortality File and LHD expenditures from the National Association of County and City Health Officials.

Predicting incidence and asymptomatic rates for chlamydia in small domains

Aim.  This article is a report of a study of the use of predictive analysis using the Bayesian hierarchical model and small area estimation as an innovative methodology to address the challenges nurses face when managing fiscal and clinical resources in outpatient and inpatient settings.

Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.

 As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health.

US secondary schools and food outlets

 We examined the availability of fast food restaurants and convenience stores within walking distance (0.5 miles or 805 m) of US public secondary schools. We found that one-third of schools nationwide have at least one fast food restaurant or convenience store within walking distance. In multivariate analyses, schools in the lowest-income versus the highest-income neighborhoods have more fast food restaurants and convenience stores, while schools in African-American versus White neighborhoods generally have fewer food outlets.

Psychiatric Comorbidity and Greater Hospitalization Risk, Longer Length of Stay, and Higher Hospitalization Costs in Older Adults with Heart Failure

OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between psychiatric comorbidity and rehospitalization risk, length of hospitalization, and costs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 1-year hospital administrative data. SETTING: Claims-based study of older adults hospitalized in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one thousand four hundred twenty-nine patients from a 5% national random sample of U.S. Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older, with at least one acute care hospitalization in 1999 with a Diagnostic-Related Group of congestive heart failure.

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