Post Traumatic Stress

Nationwide Longitudinal Study of Psychological Responses to September 11

Context The September 11, 2001, attacks against the United States provide a unique opportunity to examine longitudinally the process of adjustment to a traumatic event on a national scale.
Objective To examine the degree to which demographic factors, mental and physical health history, lifetime exposure to stressful events, September 11–related experiences, and coping strategies used shortly after the attacks predict psychological outcomes over time.

Exploring the Myths of Coping with a National Trauma A Longitudinal Study of Responses to the September 11th Terrorist Attacks

 A longitudinal investigation of psychological responses to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks was conducted on a U.S. national probability sample. Using an anonymous Web-based survey methodology, data were collected among over 1,900 adults at 2 weeks and 12 months post-9/11 to consider whether direct and proximal exposure were necessary preconditions for high levels of acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and whether greater exposure/proximity led to greater traumatic stress symptoms.

Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11.

 CONTEXT: The September 11, 2001, attacks against the United States provide a unique opportunity to examine longitudinally the process of adjustment to a traumatic event on a national scale.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the degree to which demographic factors, mental and physical health history, lifetime exposure to stressful events, September 11-related experiences, and coping strategies used shortly after the attacks predict psychological outcomes over time.

Ethnicity and Gender in the Face of a Terrorist Attack: A National Longitudinal Study of Immediate Responses and Outcomes Two Years After September 11

 This study examines ethnic and gender differences in open-ended immediate responses to an online prompt provided by a nationwide sample of 1,559 individuals in the days following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. These responses were used to predict longitudinal outcomes over the following 2 years. Results show that African Americans and women responded with more emotions (e.g., sadness, sympathy) than did Whites and men. African Americans and women also endorsed violent retaliation less often than did their White, male counterparts.

Indirect exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: does symptom structure resemble PTSD?

The authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses of reports of posttraumatic stress reactions using a national probability sample of individuals indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (n = 675). Reactions at three time points in the year after the attacks were best accounted for by a lower-order, 4-factor solution (Reexperiencing, Strategic Avoidance, Emotional Numbing, and Hyperarousal Symptoms). Indirect exposure to a traumatic event appears to induce a response with a similar symptom structure as responses to direct exposure.

Searching for and finding meaning in collective trauma: results from a national longitudinal study of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

The ability to make sense of events in one's life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans' searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval--the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001--among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N=931).

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