A Quantitative Examination of Extreme Facial Pain Expression in Neonates: The Primal Face of Pain across Time

Many pain assessment tools for preschool and school-aged children are based on facial expressions of pain. Despite broad use, their metrics are not rooted in the anatomic display of the facial pain expression. We aim to describe quantitatively the patterns of initiation and maintenance of the infant pain expression across an expressive cycle. We evaluated the trajectory of the pain expression of three newborns with the most intense facial display among 63 infants receiving a painful stimulus.

Pain assessment as a social transaction: beyond the "gold standard".

Pain assessment conventionally has been viewed hierarchically with self-report as its "gold-standard." Recent attempts to improve pain management have focused on the importance of assessment, for example, the initiative to include pain as the "fifth vital sign." We question the focus in the conceptualization of pain assessment upon a "vital sign," not in terms of the importance of assessment, but in terms of the application of self-report as a mechanistic index akin to a biologic measure such as heart rate and blood pressure.

Exploring the association between pain intensity and facial display in term newborns

BACKGROUND: Facial expression is widely used to judge pain in neonates. However, little is known about the relationship between intensity of the painful stimulus and the nature of the expression in term neonates.
OBJECTIVES: To describe differences in the movement of key facial areas between two groups of term neonates experiencing painful stimuli of different intensities.

Clinicians' evaluation and management of mental health, substance abuse, and chronic pain conditions in the intensive care unit.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe clinicians' evaluation and management of co-existing mental health, substance abuse (MHSA), and chronic pain (CP) conditions in patients with prolonged critical illness. Little is known about the evaluation and management of these conditions in the intensive care unit, and practice guidelines do not address management in the context of critical illness, optimal sedation/analgesia, or ventilator weaning.
DESIGN: Longitudinal qualitative description.
SETTING: Intensive care unit of an urban academic medical center.

Neonatal Pain Facial Expression: Evaluating the Primal Face of Pain

The primal face of pain (PFP) is postulated to be a common and universal facial expression to pain, hardwired and present at birth. We evaluated its presence by applying a computer-based methodology consisting of "point-pair" comparisons captured from video to measure facial movement in the pain expression by way of change across two images: one image before and one image after a painful stimulus (heel-stick).

Facial Expression and Pain Assessment in the Pediatric Patient: The Primal Face of Pain

PURPOSE: This paper aims to explore the role of facial expression in pediatric pain assessment. A comparison of tools employing facial expression methodology is presented. The concept of the primal face of pain (PFP) is introduced. CONCLUSION: The PFP offers an explanation to the utility and deficiency of facial pain scales and facial expression in pain assessment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The complexities of pain measurement should preclude the clinical application of untested instruments.

Is There a Primal Face of Pain? A Methodology Answer.

Pain assessment is of high priority in the clinical setting. Facial Pain Scales (FPSs) are pain assessment tools generally used with school-aged children. The implicit theoretical bases for the success of FPSs have seldom been explored. Explanations why and how FPSs work (or do not work) have not been addressed. We support the existence of a universal pain expression--the Primal Face of Pain (PFP), which is present at birth, evolved in nature, and modulated through sociocultural factors. We propose it to be key in understanding the applicability of FPSs.

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